156 FLORA INDICA.
siderable. The flora of the desert of 'Jesalmir resembles that
of the southern Panjab.
16. PAN JAB.
The Panjab extends from the northern border of Sinclh and
Marwar, or rather Jesalmir, to the base of the Himalaya, and
from the mountains of Afghanistan, which skirt the right
bank of the Indus, to the borders of the Gangelic plain.
Strictly speaking, the river Satlej, or Gharra, is the south-
eastern boundary of the Panjab, but politically the Cis-Satlcj
states have been attached to it, and for our purposes it is con-
venient to draw the "boundary along the line which separates
the waters tributary to the Ganges from those which flow to-
wards the Indus, This line lies to the eastward of the river
Gagar, whose channel may be traced by Bhatnir to the Satlej,
a little above Baliawalpur, though its waters are generally ab-
sorbed by the desert long before they reach that river. It
therefore includes Bahawalpur and Bhatiaua, as well as the
The Panjab, as is well known, derives its name from the
five great tributaries of the Indus by which it is traversed.
These are the Jelam, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, and the
Satlej, all of which, uniting to form the Panjnad, join the
Indus near the southern extremity of the province. The sur-
face is on the whole level, but the north-western angle is mow
or less diversified with hills. West of the Indus there is only
a narrow strip of level country, and here and there the hills
approach close to the river. No definite physical boundary can
therefore be laid down along this frontier, and the political
boundary must be adopted. Practically this is of HO import-
ance, as the vegetation of the lower hills of Afghanistan is the
same as that of the western Paajab,
Between the Indus and the Jelam an elevated platform of
considerable elevation (aLEawil Pindi 2000 feet) abuts upon
the Himalaya, aud south of that town rises into a low range
of hills usually known as the salt range, the southern escarp-